Euthanasia denotes any action that terminates the life of an individual in intense and debilitating medical state. Voluntary euthanasia is defined as “the practice of ending a … To act out of a ‘good will’, one must act in accordance with a categorical imperative. I'm in Canada and the debate has been started again by the government. Thus, for these reasons, the positions of Utilitarianism and Kantian on euthanasia are inadequate in resolving the issue of euthanasia, and euthanasia still remains as a significant social-ethical problem in our contemporary society. It is Teleological and focused on maximizing utility, as opposed to the Deontological root of a Kantian philosophy. That practical contradiction being if everyone were to kill one another, then there would be no people left in this world, and as a consequence, the very idea of murder would lose its meaning. our expert writers, Copying content is not allowed on this website, Ask a professional writer to help you with your text, Give us your email and we'll send you the essay you need, Please indicate where to send you the sample, Hi, my name is Jenn But euthanasia, in essence, is murder, and this might lead one to ask whether there can ever be an exception to murder? We can argue for or against, but it has to relate to our moral philosophy. To illustrate, if I were to make a promise with no intentions of keeping it, and I imagine all other people doing the same, then very idea of a promise would cease to have meaning, and thus, my action would give rise to a practical contradiction, and consequently, be immoral. We have to prepare both sides. Let us look at the issue of euthanasia being admissible in a utilitarian framework. STEP 2: Reading The Euthanasia Kantianism Vs Utilitarianism Harvard Case Study: To have a complete understanding of the case, one should focus on case reading. Though it is indeed reasonable that deliberately killing another for the sake of harming them is an immoral act, in euthanasia, a person is killed by another only by their own consent, and for the most part, with a good motive. This practice with the terminally ill is known as euthanasia. According to Kant there is only one categorical imperative, which is to “act only on that maxim in which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal (Kant, 528); and can also be formulated as “act in such a way tattoo always treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, never simply as means, but always at the same time as an end” (Kant, 532). Euthanasia: Kantianism vs Utilitarianism Essay Sample The deliberate act of ending another’s life, given his or her consent, is formally referred to as euthanasia. independent of experience. First let us define voluntary euthanasia. In case you can’t find a sample example, our professional writers are ready to help you with writing Finally, the categorical imperative is an unconditional ought, which means that an action must be performed solely out of duty to the categorical imperative, without any ulterior motive, in order for it to be a moral action. There are a variety of positions, based on the numerous ethical theories that have been developed, that one can take in order to resolve the issue of euthanasia; but the positions I will be looking at in particular, are the positions based on John Stuart Mill's 'Utilitarianism' ethical theory, and Immanuel Kant's 'Categorical Imperative' ethical theory. Euthanasia is seen as a controversial and moral issue because of the different viewpoints. Bentham's theory states that when faced with an ethical dilemma, you should decide what is morally right or wrong depending on what has the best consequences for the maximum amount of people. With Kantian, the significant flaw in their position lies in the fact that they make an absolute, immutable statement – do not murder – without any consideration for the context in which murder takes place. Hedonistic Utilitarianism An action is god when it maximizes the amount of pleasure for most people, consequences in a minimum amount of pain. Help, Use multiple resourses when assembling your essay, Get help form professional writers when not sure you can do it yourself, Use Plagiarism Checker to double check your essay, Do not copy and paste free to download essays. Utilitarianism vs. Kantianism According to Thiroux and Krasemann (2012), utilitarianism is, “a normative ethical theory originally established by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill that advocates brining about good consequences or happiness to all concerned” (pp. Let us look at the issue of euthanasia being admissible in a utilitarian framework. In reference to Kant’s views on many related issues, such as murder, suicide, autonomy, rationality, With Utilitarianism, the significant flaw in their position lies in the fact that it is built on the false assumption that the consequences of actions can be predicted, when in actuality they cannot. At present, euthanasia is one of the most controversial social-ethical issues that we face, in that it deals with a sensitive subject matter where there is much uncertainty as to what position one ought to take. The deliberate act of ending another's life, given his or her consent, is formally referred to as euthanasia… This simply means that the end justifies means. Unlike Utilitarianism however, Kantianism states that ethics is a purely a priori discipline, thus, independent of experience, and that ethical rules can only be … Aside from the cultural and religious aspects on dying, Utilitarianism and Kantian Ethics discuss how we, as humans, should pursue our lives. Therefore, since euthanasia meets the moral tankards set by Utilitarianism, it would support the act of euthanasia as a morally sound action. In this case, killing the person Would seem to be the most humane and reasonable thing to do, whereas keeping the person alive would be akin to torture; which is also presumed to be a fundamental evil act. Deliberately killing another person is presumed by most rational people as a fundamental evil act. Initially, fast reading without taking notes and underlines should be done. This fundamental idea then forms the basis for Utilitarianism’s Greatest Happiness Principle which states, “actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. In fact, killing the person would seem to be the most humane act one can perform, and in not killing the person, and keeping him/her alive in such a state of pain and agony, would be like an indirect form of torture; which in Kantian is not a moral act. Two most famous ethicists are John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) and Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). Euthanasia related to Kantianism and Utilitarianism. This can be illustrated in the most common case of euthanasia, where the person who is willing to die suffers from an illness that causes great pain, and will result in his or her demise in the not-so-distant future. 451). Euthanasia and Utilitarianism The principle of Utilitarianism was invented by Jeremy Bentham. classical utilitarians vs. Utilitarianism, Kantian Ethics, Natural Rights Theories, and Religious Ethics A “utilitarian” argument, in the strict sense, is one what alleges that we ought to do something because it will produce more total happiness than doing anything else would. Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. However, as I stated in my thesis, I believe that Utilitarianism, and Kantian do not provide an adequate resolution to the issue of euthanasia, because of he significant flaws in their reasoning. And if one were to make an exception in this case, what would then prevent us from making exceptions in other cases? therefore. When a person is suffering tremendously and is most likely going to die navy’s, it does not at all seem unreasonable to kill him. Utilitarianism pdf and kantianism. According to Utilitarianism, euthanasia can be morally justified, whereas according to Kantian, euthanasia is not morally justifiable; but will argue that neither position provides an adage Tate resolution to the issue, due to the significant flaws that are inherent in the reasoning that led to their particular positions. Philosophy Support Materials: Moral Philosophy – Student Activities (H and Int 2) 3 NOTE TO TUTORS These support materials have been designed to support the teaching of the 451). since euthanasia meets the moral criterions set by Utilitarianism. Euthanasia is seen by some as killing, while others see it as removing a person from immense amounts of pain. Downloaded 202 times. • Utilitarianism says that an act is justified if maximum numbers of people are deriving happiness out of it. Also, inspired by his/her new life, the individual went on to form a charity that raised money for research in pain treatment, thereby increasing the happiness for a great many. 4 UTILITARIAN ETHICS Bedau (1983) tells us that Kantian ethics contrast the idea of utilitarianism, which proposes that all situations demand a certain degree of pragmatism with respect to behavior. Also contrary to Utilitarianism, Kantian asserts that the moral worth of an action should be judged on its motive and the action itself, and not on its consequences. Kantianism and utilitarianism have different ways for determining whether an act we do is right or wrong. the death penalty. Unlike Utilitarianism however, Kantian states that ethics is a purely a priori discipline, thus, independent of experience, and that ethical rules can only be found through pure reason. 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